seguridad de la vacuna contra el cáncer de cérvix

La vacuna frente al cáncer de cérvix o cuello de útero es segura

AGENCIAS | MADRID La vacuna frente al cáncer de cérvix o cuello de útero es segura y su eficacia frente a lesiones que puede provocar este mal es de alrededor del 98 por ciento, según los resultados del mayor estudio clínico en fase III (con participación masiva) realizado al respecto y que se publica hoy en la revista científica The Lancet.

El estudio internacional ha sido presentado por sus responsables, en el que han participado los centros médicos madrileños Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Hospital de Móstoles y Hospital Santa Cristina, aparte del Hospital Clinic, el Institut Catalá d’Oncología y el Hospital Vall d’Hebron, de Barcelona.

El estudio, en el que han participado 18.500 mujeres de entre 15 y 25 años, se ha centrado en la investigación de la eficacia de la vacuna Cervarix, de GlaxoSmithKline, que en España se distribuye en siete comunidades autónomas, ya que el resto suministra otra denominada Gardasil, fabricada por Sanofi. Esta última es la relacionada con el caso de unas niñas de Valencia que sufrieron trastornos cuando se les administró, aunque finalmente las autoridades sanitarias concluyeron que no existía vinculación entre dicho mal y el fármaco.

Según ha explicado la doctora María Castro, del Servicio de Ginecología del Hospital Puerta de Hierro, en Madrid, y que ha colaborado en el estudio sobre la eficacia de Cervarix desde el Hospital de Móstoles, ambas vacunas son completamente seguras. Las dos han sido avaladas por la comunidad científica y por las autoridades sanitarias, tras animar a su administración dado el elevado porcentaje de eficacia demostrado para prevenir el cáncer de cuello de útero y otros problemas asociados.

Eficacia con o sin sexo
El epidemiólogo del Institut Catalá d’Oncología y uno de los investigadores del estudio, el doctor Xavier Castellsagué, ha subrayado que los datos demuestran una elevada eficacia clínica, no sólo para las lesiones precancerosas de cérvix causadas por los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) 16 y 18, sino también para las causadas por el 31, 33 y 45.

Por su parte, el miembro del Servicio de Ginecología del Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, el doctor Aureli Torné, ha señalado que los resultados muestran que la vacuna tuvo una eficacia del 93 por ciento, en relación con las mujeres que no habían estado nunca en contacto con el virus, independientemente de si se habían iniciado o no en las relaciones sexuales.

Respecto al perfil de seguridad, el miembro del Servicio de medicina Preventiva del Hospital Clinic de Barcelona y uno de los investigadores principales del estudio en España, el doctor José María Bayas, ha señalado que la tasa de acontecimientos adversos graves del grupo vacunado con Cervarix fue similar al del grupo de control, por lo que ha destacado el buen perfil de seguridad y la tolerabilidad de la vacuna.

Este experto ha apuntado que esta vacuna es muy eficaz frente a los tipos de virus que causan cáncer de cérvix con mayor frecuencia y ofrece la posibilidad de «reducir de manera considerable la incidencia de lesiones precancerosas de cérvix, de cáncer de cérvix, y de procedimientos diagnósticos y de tratamiento quirúrgico asociados a estas lesiones».

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