Nova tècnica per operar els fetus afectats d’espina bífida

Operacions d’espina bífida al Vall d’Hebron

CARLA ràdio / Barcelona L’hospital Vall d’Hebron de Barcelona és capdavanter en la utilització d’una nova tècnica experimental per operar els fetus afectats d’espina bífida. Es tracta d’una intervenció per endoscòpia que redueix els riscos i les seqüeles de la malaltia. És una tècnica que només es fa a dos centres dels Estats Units.

Aquest nou sistema, conegut com a fetoscòpia, és mínimament invasiva. Consisteix a entrar a l’úter de la mare, a les 20 setmanes de gestació, per dos petits orificis i corregir el defecte a la medul·la espinal del fetus amb un pegat especial anomenat “patch and glue”, que substitueix les capes que li falten.

Habitualment es practica cirurgia oberta en aquests tipus de casos, una tècnica molt més agressiva per a la mare i per al fetus. En sis de les nou pacients operades fins ara amb aquesta tècnica s’ha reduït la prematuritat i s’han minimitzat les seqüeles de la malformació.

La coordinadora de la Unitat d’Espina Bífida, Ampar Cuxart, explica els objectius d’aquest sistema: “Protegir la placa neural exposada al líquid amniòtic, disminuir la necessitat de vàlvula i, en conseqüència, disminuir la taxa d’hidrocefàlia, revertir la malformació de Chiari II, i mantenir el nivell neurològic que tingués aquest fetus abans de la cirurgia”.

A la presentació d’aquest mètode hi havia tres famílies de Madrid que s’han sotmès a l’operació. La mare de la María, una de les nenes operades abans de néixer, afirma: “Va anar tot molt bé. Els metges ens van donar molt de suport. La María no té cap problema motor i és una nena que fa pràcticament una vida normal.” L’operació no cura l’espina bífida però evita part de la degeneració neurològica provocada per la patologia.

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