la música mejora la percepción visual del cerebro lesionado

Escuchar una música preferida ayuda a recuperar la visión, según los resultados de un estudio publicado en Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) EL PAIS MÓNICA L. FERRADO.- 60% de las personas que sufren un ictus pierden, en mayor o menor grado, parte de la visión. Esta secuela se conoce como síndrome de negligencia visual.

En el síndrome de negligencia visual el ojo no ha sufrido ningún daño, sino que se trata de un problema de percepción. Si el ictus afecta al hemisferio izquierdo, el daño cerebral hace que el paciente no sea capaz de prestar atención a los estímulos que se presentan en su campo visual derecho. “Es una pérdida de conciencia sobre los estímulos visuales. Por ejemplo, algunos pacientes dejan de comer la comida de un lado del plato simplemente porque no la ven”, explica María Jesús Funes, investigadora de la Universidad de Granada. Incluso algunas personas pueden dejar de prestar atención a alguna parte del cuerpo y, por tanto, perder movilidad.

El estudio se ha realizado con tres pacientes que escogieron su música preferida: Kenny Rogers, Frank Sinatra y The Flying Burrito Brothers. Mientras escuchaban su melodía, se les presentaban objetos o imágenes situados en su lado afectado (derecho o izquierdo) en diferentes situaciones (en un ordenador, en papel, en una habitación). “Los pacientes mejoraron de media hasta un 40% en las tareas de identificación y detección de estímulos en el campo visual”, explica Funes. Si escuchaban una música que no les gustaba o estaban en silencio su percepción no mejoraba.

“Escuchar una música que agrada permite movilizar más recursos neurológicos. Estimula las zonas del cerebro relacionadas con las emociones. Una de ellas es la zona orbitofrontal que, al mismo tiempo, incide en otras regiones dañadas relacionadas con la atención y la consciencia visual, en el lóbulo parietal y occipital”, explica Funes. Los investigadores han podido observar estos cambios en el cerebro gracias a técnicas de imagen por resonancia magnética funcional. Funes explica que aún está por ver si los efectos persisten y, por tanto, su potencial como herramienta en la rehabilitación. “En todo caso, pone de relieve la importancia de las emociones en la rehabilitación del enfermo”, afirma.

Otro estudio realizado por la Universidad de Helsinki, publicado en la revista Brain, con 60 personas que acababan de sufrir un ictus, demostraba una mejor rehabilitación entre los pacientes que inmediatamente después del accidente vascular escucharon música a diario. No tan sólo mejoraron su memoria verbal y su atención, sino que sufrieron menos trastornos del ánimo.

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