anunci.info Barcelona 324.cat.- Un grup d’investigadors d’arreu del món liderats per l’Institut de Recerca de la Vall d’Hebron buscarà aconseguir un fàrmac més eficaç pel tractament de la malaltia de Chagas i reduir els efectes secundaris que, en molts casos, obliguen a abandonar el tractament. La Comissió Europea ha seleccionat el seu projecte per combatre les anomenades malalties oblidades.
El Chagas és una malaltia tropical i crònica, que es transmet a través d’un paràsit, sobretot les xinxes, i també de mare a fill durant l’embaràs o a través de transfusions de sang o trasplantament d’òrgans. El paràsit ataca dos òrgans: el cor i el sistema digestiu. De fet, el paràsit danya les parets del cor i pot provocar pèrdues de coneixement i arítmies, que en cas de ser greus poden desencadenar en una mort sobtada.
No hi ha dades oficials, però segons les estimacions de l’OMS, entre 8 i 10 milions de persones al món tenen aquesta malaltia, sobretot en països de l’Amèrica Llatina. Per l’efecte de la immigració, la malaltia s’ha estès per tot el món, també a Espanya, on es calcula que hi ha entre 50.000 i 90.000 afectats, entre 10.000 i 15.000 a Catalunya. Aquestes xifres, però, són només estimacions perquè el 90% dels afectats no ho saben.
Actualment hi ha pocs tractaments per combatre el Chagas i “el problema més greu és que la malaltia és molt silenciosa i quan dóna la cara, a vegades, ja és massa tard”, ha explicat el doctor de la Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca, Israel Molina, que coordina l’estudi. I és que s’estima que, en el 70% dels casos, el Chagas passa desapercebut i no presenta complicacions; la resta pot tenir greus afectacions cardíaques i digestives.
Els tractaments farmacològics que s’administren actualment són poc efectius. La taxa de curació està per sota del 40% i al voltant del 15% dels pacients han de suspendre el tractament arran d’efectes adversos greus, sense tenir una altra opció terapèutica fiable. En aquest sentit, el projecte, batejat com a “Berenice” i amb una subvenció de 3 milions d’euros de la CE, ha de servir per reformular el medicament que s’utilitza més, el Benznidazol, perquè sigui “més eficaç, menys tòxic i més barat que l’actual”, segons Molina. Però, per saber els primers resultats, caldrà esperar encara 5 anys.
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