Constaten l’eficàcia d’una vacuna contra la grip que podria funcionar contra totes les variants del virus

Avenç significatiu cap a la vacuna universal contra la grip. Londresífics de la Universitat d’Oxford, al Regne Unit, han constatat l’eficàcia d’una vacuna que podria funcionar contra totes les variants del virus, que cada any afecta milions de persones arreu. El tractament, a diferència dels que s’han aplicat fins ara, evitaria haver de preparar cada temporada noves variants de les vacunes en funció de la dominant d’aquell any. En qualsevol cas, la vacuna universal per a la grip és un objectiu encara a llarg termini.

L’equip de científics, dirigits per la doctora Sarah Gilbert, del Jenner Institute de la Universitat d’Oxford, ha constatat l’eficàcia de la vacuna contra la grip que podria funcionar contra totes les variants del virus. La novetat del tractament rau en el fet que, a diferència dels que s’han aplicat fins ara, ataca diferents parts del virus i això pot evitar haver de preparar cada temporada noves variants de les vacunes en funció de la variant dominant.

Segons ha avançat el diari britànic “The Guardian”, els investigadors han centrat el seu treball en les proteïnes de l’interior del virus de la grip, que són les mateixes en totes les soques, i no com es fa fins ara, en les de la capa externa, que poden mutar. A més, les vacunes tradicionals fan que l’organisme creï anticossos, mentre que aquesta vacuna fa que es disparin un determinat tipus de cèl·lules que són clau per al funcionament del sistema immunològic.

Durant l’estudi, es van vacunar 11 voluntaris sans que van ser infectats, juntament amb 11 persones més no vacunades, amb la variant Wisconsin del virus de la grip H3N2, aïllat des del 2005. La vacuna va ser eficaç en les 11 persones que la van rebre. I és que van mostrar una major concentració dels limfòcits T, que combaten el virus.

Els responsables de l’estudi, però, asseguren que la vacuna universal estalviaria molt de temps i diners. I és que per desenvolupar una vacuna estacional contra la grip es necessiten com a mínim quatre mesos de feina i una inversió multimilionària. “Si féssim servir la mateixa vacuna regularment, seria com vacunar de qualsevol altra malaltia, es convertiria en una rutina”, assegura Gilbert, que afegeix que aquest avenç serà especialment positiu en el cas de la gent gran.

Tot i l’optimisme, la vacuna universal per a la grip és un objectiu encara a llarg termini. I és que encara ha de superar proves més exigents per tal de ser aprovada per les autoritats sanitàries.

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